Genus/species (aliases): Kluyveromyces marxianus (Saccharomyces vanudenii, Kluyveromyces vanudenii)
- Cell: Reproduce by budding; spheroidal, ovoid, ellipsoidal, occasionally cylindrical; Larger size, ~4-8 µm; occur singly, in pairs or small clusters or chains; pseudohyphae may be produced.
- Colony: Malt agar: puffy, creamish-brown, flat, spreading, dull round colony.
- Spore: smooth spores ranging from spheroidal to bean or crescent shaped; mature spores usually contain lipid globules.
- Zygote: conjugation may immediately proceed sporulation.
- Ascus: evanescent, one to four spores per ascus.
- Liquid Growth: a sediment, ring and/or pellicle may be formed.
- Fermentation: Glucose, Galactose, Sucrose, Raffinose; variable: Maltose, Lactose. Trehalose, Inulin.
- Assimilation: Galactose, Sucrose, Cellobiose, Raffinose, Mannitol, Ethanol, Lactate, Succinate; variable use of: Ribose, Maltose, Melezitose, Trehalose, L-Arabinose, D-Xylose, Citrate, Salicin, Arbutin, Ribitol; No assimilation of nitrate; Uses ethylamine, cadaverine, lysine and variable use of tryptophan as sole N source; variable growth on vitamin-free medium, requires biotin and niacin.
- Growth 37, 40, 42, and 45 oC: +
- Growth Sensitivities: grows on 0.01 and 0.1% cycloheximide; variable growth on high glucose and 10% NaCl.
- Chromosome bands: 4 to 18 bands reported
- Also used commercially to produce the lactase enzyme and as a bonding agent for fodder and pet food, and as a source of ribonucleic acid in pharmaceuticals
Found in grape juice but primarily in milk, cheese and other dairy products.
Able to withstand high temperatures, grows on NaCI-YM plates.
Role in wine:
Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to ferment sugars in high temperature environments (up to 45°C) including grape juice. is also in some commercial preparations of yeast to contribute flavor complexity.
- SO2: Yes
- Sorbate: Yes
- DMDC: Yes
- pH: Yes
- Acids: Yes
- Ethanol: No
- Heat: No
IMB3 yeast immobilized on delignified cellulosic material.
Bioresouces Technology. Volume 82, Issue 2, April 2002, Pages 177-181