Genus/species (aliases): Gliocladium sp. (Obsolete: Acrostalagmus, Isaria, and Verticillium; telemorphs: Nectria, Hypocrea, and Nectriopsis)
- Cell: “distinctive erect, often densely penicillate conidiophores with phialides which bear slimy, one-celled hyaline to green, smooth-walled conidia in heads or columns.” “Hyphae are septate and hyaline. Conidiophores are erect and branch repeatedly at their apices. The terminal branches give rise to flask-shaped phialides. Conidia are one-celled, ovoid to cylindrical, accumulating in a single, terminal, large ball, or occasionally in a loose column. A penicillus bearing a single, large, slimy ball of one-celled conidia is typical of the genus Gliocladium.”
- Colony: Malt agar: “fast growing, suede-like to downy in texture, white at first, sometimes pink to salmon, becoming pale to dark green with sporulation”
- “on CMD, they grow rapidly, approximately 5.0-6.0 cm; on PDA 4.5--7.0 cm… Colonies on CMD, flat with some aerial mycelium. Conidia are produced concentrically or near the margin of the plate. Colonies on PDA, floccose with effuse conidiation typically covering the entire surface of the plate. A yellow pigmentation of the agar is sometimes present on both CMD and PDA.”
- Spore: slimy conidia, “other colorless”
- Liquid Growth:
Produces gliotoxin, a fungal antibiotic mycotoxin with antiphagycytic and immunomodulatory activities. It blocks the thiol groups in the membranes and induces apoptotsis in macrophages and thymocytes. Also produces heptelidic acid, or koningic acid, which has the ability to alter ATP generation through inhibition of the d-glycealdehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Also, this acid has been shown to have in vitro cytotoxicity of against the human malaria parasite and some types of tumor cells.
Worldwide in decaying plant debris and soil, possibly on the mycelium of another fungus.
Densely penicillate erect conidiophores with philalides producing single slimy green conidia.
Role in wine:
Found on the surface of grapes; no role in winemaking
- SO2: ( - )
- pH: 10.5
- Acids: ( - )
- Ethanol: ( - )
- Anaerobiosis: ( + )
- Heat: treated soils immediately before planting showed some decrease in fungi-caused wilt.
- Alizadeh HR, Sharifi-Tehrani A, Hedjaroude GA. Evaluation of the effects of chemical versus biological control on Botrytis cinerea agent of gray mould disease of strawberry. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72(4):795-800.
- Papavizas, G. C., Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 1985, 23, 23–54.