Genus/species (aliases): Cryptococcus laurentii; (Torulaspora laurentii; Torulopsis flavescens;Torulopsis flavescens;Cryptococcus flavescens; Rhodotorula laurentii; Torula flavescens; Torula laurentii);
Classification (ascomycete/basidiomycete): Basidiomycete
- Cell: Ovoid, 2-5 x 3-7 µm in size, encapsulated, budding yeast, gathering in chains of 3-4.
- Malt agar: Smooth, glossy, cream colored colonies, darkening to yellow-orange; In C. laurentii var. laurentii mycelium may grow, mostly below agar surface
- WL: Unknown
- Spore: In C. laurentii var. laurentii limited thick-walled ovoid – spherical chlamydospores formed, with hyphal growth in those that germinate. Less than 1% of spores germinate.
- Zygote: Teleomorph not identified
- Ascus: N/A (Basidiomcyete)
- Liquid Growth: flocculent
Capable of degrading a large variety of plant structural compounds including xylanases, pectinases, cutinases, lipases, proteinases and laccases. Can also degrade hemicellulose into anionic extracellular polysaccharides.
Found in most soils, especially arctic, prairie and tundra. Avian fecal matter is often a reservoir for the genus. It is a more dominant fungus on unripe grape berries and continues to be present when grapes are ripe (particularly in cooler climates).
Facultative alkaliphile; psychrophillic. Produces yeast killing factor.
Role in wine:
Can occur as native fungi on grape skin and also found in cellars and in corks; Rarely present in finished wine in significant quantities. In corks, it may be responsible for some odor/contamination problems; Recent studies indicate may be useful as a biocontrol method in vineyard management, particularly as regards to Botrytis cinerea – especially as it can degrade laccase.
- SO2: unknown
- Sorbate: unknown
- DMDC: unknown
- pH: unknown
- Acids: unknown
- Ethanol: Low tolerance
- Anaerobiosis: unknown
- Heat : Max is 30 degrees Celcius
König H., G. Unden and J. Fröhlich. 2009. Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must, and in Wine. Springer, New York.