Genus/species (aliases): Candida tropicalis (Atelosaccharomyces tropicalis, Candida albicans var. tropicalis, Castellania tropicalis, Monila tropicalis, Oidium tropicale, and Procandida tropicalis)
Classification: Ascomycete; anamorph
Cell: reproduce by budding; spherical to ovoid, 3.0-5.5 x 4.0-9.0 um; pseudohyphae and hyphae may be formed
- YPD: off-white to grey, cream –colored, dull, soft, smooth and creamy or wrinkled and tough
- Malt agar: White to cream color, smooth, glabrous, fringed border WL = Positive on cycloheximide 0.1
- Spore: Blastospores produced on pseudohyphae, singly, in chains or clusters; Arthroconidia and ballistoconidia are not formed.
- Zygote: NA
- Ascus: NA
Liquid Growth: Subglobose to ovoid, single and paired, can make thin surface film and bubbles in Sabourand broth; sediments can be formed
- Fermentation: Glucose, Maltose, Galactose, Trehalose, Raffinose; Sucrose variable.
- Assimilation: Galactose, Maltose, Trehalose, Soluble starch, Succinate, D-Xylose, Arabinose, D-Mannitol, D-Glucitol; variable: Cellobiose, Citrate, Glycerol, Lactate, Ribitol, Salicin, Sucrose, L-Sorbose, Melezitose, Ribose; No assimilation of nitrate; no growth in vitamin free medium: requires biotin; uses as sole N source: Ethylamine, Lysine, Cadaverine
- Growth at 37 C: +; some strains will grow at 40 and 42 C
- Growth sensitivities: will grow on 0.01% and (some strains) 0.1% cycloheximide
- Chromosome bands: 4 to 12 reported
Found on human skin mucous membranes, gut flora, soil, fermentation vats, water, leaves, raw honey and flowers; rarely found in wine when found, likely evidence of human contamination perhaps during plating.
Unlike physiologically similar C. maltose, C. tropicalis can assimilate starch. Unlike C. sake, it can grow at 35° C. inositol -, nitrate -, erythritol -.
Role in wine: Genus Candida is known to grow during first few days of fermentation at which point they die off
- Optimum pH: 3.5-6.6
- Ethanol: 0.85M
- Optimum Heat: 20 to 45°C