Gluconobacter oxydans

Genus/species (aliases): Gluconobacter oxydans (Acetobacter suboxydans)

Gram Stain: Negative


  • Cell: ovoid, no flagella (non-motile), 0.8µm x 4.2µm
  • Colony: circular, diameter of 3mm, convex, white/yellow/brown depending on age, regularly edged
  • Liquid Growth: dispersed
Gluconobacter oxydans Gluconobacter oxydans

Physiological Traits:

Obligate aerobe that utilizes alcohol as its primary substrate to produce acetic acid.

Ecological Traits:

Found in sugar rich, or alcoholic areas, tolerant of low pH’s, but optimum pH of 5.5-6.0, optimal growth at 25-30 degrees C, no growth at 37 C.

Distinguishing Features:

Role in wine:

Oxidizes ethanol to acetic acid in wines.


  • SO2: X
  • Sorbate­­­­­:
  • DMDC: X
  • pH:
  • Acids:
  • Anaerobiosis:
  • Heat: X



Olijve, W., J.J. Kok. 1979. Analysis of growth of Gluconobacter oxydans in glucose containing media. Achrives of Microbiol. 121:283-290.