Candida tropicalis

Genus/species (aliases): Candida tropicalis (Atelosaccharomyces tropicalis, Candida albicans var. tropicalis, Castellania tropicalis, Monila tropicalis, Oidium tropicale, and Procandida tropicalis)

Classification: Ascomycete; anamorph

Morphology:

Cell: reproduce by budding; spherical to ovoid, 3.0-5.5 x 4.0-9.0 um; pseudohyphae and hyphae may be formed

Colony:

  • YPD: off-white to grey, cream –colored, dull, soft, smooth and creamy or wrinkled and tough
  • Malt agar: White to cream color, smooth, glabrous, fringed border WL = Positive on cycloheximide 0.1
  • Spore: Blastospores produced on pseudohyphae, singly, in chains or clusters; Arthroconidia and ballistoconidia are not formed.
  • Zygote: NA
  • Ascus: NA

Liquid Growth: Subglobose to ovoid, single and paired, can make thin surface film and bubbles in Sabourand broth; sediments can be formed

Physiological Traits:

  • Fermentation: Glucose, Maltose, Galactose, Trehalose, Raffinose; Sucrose variable.
  • Assimilation: Galactose, Maltose, Trehalose, Soluble starch, Succinate, D-Xylose, Arabinose, D-Mannitol, D-Glucitol; variable: Cellobiose, Citrate, Glycerol, Lactate, Ribitol, Salicin, Sucrose, L-Sorbose, Melezitose, Ribose; No assimilation of nitrate; no growth in vitamin free medium: requires biotin; uses as sole N source: Ethylamine, Lysine, Cadaverine
  • Growth at 37 C: +; some strains will grow at 40 and 42 C
  • Growth sensitivities: will grow on 0.01% and (some strains) 0.1% cycloheximide
  • Chromosome bands: 4 to 12 reported

Ecological Traits:

Found on human skin mucous membranes, gut flora, soil, fermentation vats, water, leaves, raw honey and flowers; rarely found in wine when found, likely evidence of human contamination perhaps during plating.

Distinguishing Features:

Unlike physiologically similar C. maltose, C. tropicalis can assimilate starch. Unlike C. sake, it can grow at 35° C. inositol -, nitrate -, erythritol -.
Role in wine:  Genus Candida is known to grow during first few days of fermentation at which point they die off

Sensitivities
:

  • SO2:
  • Sorbate:
  • DMDC:
  • Optimum pH: 3.5-6.6
  • Ethanol: 0.85M
  • Anaerobiosis:
  • Optimum Heat: 20 to 45°C